Freshwater aquarium fish ebook

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    freezovralomi.ga's freshwater aquarium book download page. This freshwater aquarium book is FREE for anyone to download and use. For beginning aquatic fancier looking to start out right with fish, Freshwater Aquariums by David Alderton is the ideal primer. A vertebrate that breathe primarily. Read "Freshwater Aquarium Fish Care for Beginners: A Quick Start Guide to Freshwater Fish Quick & Easy Saltwater Aquarium ebook by Pet Experts at TFH.

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    Freshwater Aquarium Fish Ebook

    Freshwater Aquarium Book - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File Lucky Keeping Aquarium Plants How To Set Up a Fish Quarantine. Provides freshwater aquarium information for freshwater fish keepers. Over Click on the link below to start downloading this free ebook: . Download the free ebook 'All About Aquariums' written by Mick Watson, a freshwater tropical aquarium properly without seeing fish suffering.

    The cool part about making it an e-book means that I can keep it updated when we publish new articles or profiles on the website. Check the download page if you want to get the latest version. I'll be sure to include the last update date so it's easy to tell if you have the latest version. Please pardon any typos or grammatical errors. I've been in this document for many hours but I'm sure that some have slipped by. It is FREE for everyone.

    Often times the fish become stressed and fish disease starts to break out. I wonder what percentage of disease is caused by the cycling of new aquariums. Certain species are hardier than others and seem to tolerate the start-up cycle better than others.

    For freshwater tanks, the zebra danio is a very hardy fish that many use to get the nitrogen cycle started. For saltwater tanks, some have reported success using damselfish to get the process started. Again, using fish to cycle is not a good idea and you may be throwing your money on dead fish out the window. There is a better way. Read on, young grasshopper.

    To easily get an ammonia reading from your tank water try the Seachem Ammonia Alert. It sticks inside the tank and has a circle that changes color depending on the ammonia levels in the tank. Option 1: Using Fish Food Drop in a few flakes every 12 hours. As the food decomposes it will release ammonia. You will have to continue to "feed" the tank throughout the process to keep it going. Option 2: Use a small piece of raw fish or a raw shrimp Drop a 2 inch by 1 inch chunk of raw fish or a raw shrimp into the tank.

    As it decomposes it will release ammonia into the tank. Option 3: Using a dropper, add 5 drops of ammonia per 10 gallons of aquarium water. If you don't get an ammonia reading with your test kit, add some more drops until you start to see an ammonia FishLore. Keep track of how many drops you've used so you can repeat this process daily. Continue to dose the tank with ammonia until you start to get nitrite readings with your test kit.

    Once you can detect nitrites you should only add 3 drops of ammonia per 10 gallons of aquarium water, or if you added more drops originally to get an ammonia reading cut the amount of drops used in half. Continue this process daily until you get nitrate readings with your test kit.

    Option 4: This will seed the tank with all of the necessary bacteria for the nitrogen cycle. Depending on how fast you were able to get the gravel and filter media into your tank, you may be getting nitrate readings in only a day or two. There are some drawbacks to this method.

    Ask your source if they have recently used any copper medications in the tank. If they have and you are planning to have invertebrates in the tank you should probably not use this method. Invertebrates will not tolerate copper. Get a copper test kit to determine if it's safe to use.

    Option 5: Using live rock in Saltwater Tanks The use of live rock in saltwater tanks has really taken off over the past few years. The reason for this is because it is one of the best forms of biological filtration available for saltwater tanks. The shape the rock is in when you get it will determine how long the nitrogen cycle will take. See step 7 on the saltwater setup page for more information on live rock.

    Option 6: Use Colonize by Dr. Foster and Smith - claims to colonize your water with the necessary bacteria needed to get the cycle going along with detoxifying ammonia so it doesn't harm the fish. To be used at the start of the tank setup and whenever you add new fish to your tank.

    Another bacteria culture product is Tetra SafeStart. People have reported success on the forum with using Tetra SafeStart. Do a quick search on the forum for other members' input. This product claims to contain some patent pending species of nitrifying bacteria that will cycle your tank in 24 hours. Some of the FishLore forum members have tried it and it sounds like it is legitimate. It is kind of expensive, but if you already have fish in your tank and they are suffering through the cycle, you may want to check this stuff out.

    There are both FishLore. Please let us know if you use this and if it works for you by submitting comments below. Once the cycle has started only add one or two fish at a time. Wait a couple of weeks before adding more fish. This will give your tank the time it needs to catch up with the increased bioload. Speeding Up the Cycling Process There are things you can do to speed along the process of cycling your aquarium.

    Increase the temperature of your aquarium water to 80FF 27CC Get some beneficial bacteria colonies. Borrow some gravel from an established and cycled aquarium. If you have another tank with an extra filter you can use it. If you have a really nice friend with an established and cycled aquarium, ask if you can have one of their used filter media. It will be loaded with the good bacteria that we are looking for. There are products on the market that claim to introduce the beneficial bacteria.

    For more information, check out products like Bio-spira and Tetra SafeStart in option 6 above. There are many more products entering the market that contain the beneficial bacteria necessary to seed your tank. Between live rock for saltwater aquariums and the bottled bacteria being readily available, there really is no excuse to make fish suffer through a cycle. Most think of mechanical filtration when it comes to aquarium filters but as you will soon see, there are some other filter types that you need to know about.

    Mechanical Filtration Biological Filtration Chemical Filtration Mechanical Aquarium Filtration Mechanical filtration removes the free floating particles from the aquarium water. The siphoning action of a power filter that hangs on the back of an aquarium does a decent job of this type of filtration. Biological Aquarium Filtration Biological filtration is the most important aquarium filtration type because it deals with the growing of the good bacteria in your aquarium filter.

    The good bacteria is the bacteria that converts ammonia to nitrite and then converts nitrite into nitrate. This establishment of bacteria is essential to your success with keeping tropical fish. For more information please read about the Nitrogen Cycle.

    Often times this is accomplished through the use of activated carbon in the aquarium filter. Activated carbon can also help to reduce odors. Many people dislike using carbon in their tanks due to the fact that the carbon is useful for only a short period and then must be replaced. If it doesn't FishLore. Zeolites can also be used in chemical filtration.

    Zeolite removes ammonia from your aquarium water and can be a fish life saver if you have high ammonia levels. Many first time fish keepers mistakenly add too many fish to a new aquarium before it has cycled and experience the disappointing loss of their fish.

    Using zeolite during the cycling process in your aquarium filter can help prevent this from happening but it has the side effect of lengthening the time it takes to complete the aquarium nitrogen cycle. Types of Aquarium Filters Corner Filter The corner filter sits inside the aquarium in one of the corners or even sticks on to the glass. It is very low-tech but a corner aquarium filter can be used successfully for mechanical, chemical and biological filtration. The key is not to change out the entire filter material when performing maintenance.

    Only change out the carbon and part of the filter material. Corner filters require frequent maintenance and are only used in very small tanks these days if at all. Undergravel Filter UGF Undergravel filters are commonly found with beginner's aquarium kits and the undergravel filter has been around for a long time.

    Undergravel aquarium filters can provide good mechanical filtration because it forces the water down through the aquarium gravel where particles are trapped. You can then use an aquarium vacuum to clean the detritus.

    Biological filtration occurs in the gravel because of the slow flow of water through it. The water is then pushed up through the uplift tubes in the back of the tank where chemical filtration takes place with the activated carbon in the top of the tubes.

    The problem with this type of aquarium filter stems from the fact that it can be difficult to thoroughly vacuum the gravel and harmful gas pockets can form under the gravel plates thereby harming your tropical fish. I personally don't use undergravel filters because of this reason. There's a lot of controversy surrounding the use of undergravel filtration. Check out The Undergravel Filter Controversy for more on this subject.

    Many long time fishkeepers still use. If you do use an undergravel filter try to regularly vacuum your gravel to prevent the harmful gasses from forming. Sponge Filter. Sponge filters can provide a cheap and effective form of biological filtration.

    Water flows through the airlift tube allowing a colony of beneficial bacteria to grow in the sponge. There is no chemical filtration with this method and the mechanical filtration is very weak.

    You must do frequent water changes if this is your only form of filtration. Many breeders use the sponge filter in conjunction with a bare bottom tank. After feeding their young fish they will siphon any remaining food to prevent the water quality from deteriorating. Frequent water changes are performed because it aids in the rapid growth of the young fish.

    Fish breeders don't have to worry about mechanical or chemical filtration as much because they are performing frequent water changes. Power Filter The power filter is probably the most popular filter type for a variety of reasons.

    They are easy to use and clean and they can be an effective means of mechanical, chemical and biological filtration! The drawback to using power filters is that it is very inefficient because of its design. The intake tube for the dirty aquarium water is directly below the lip of the outflowing filtered water. Does this make any sense? Not to me either. More aquarium kits come with a power filter than any other type of aquarium filter.

    Try to get a power filter that contains two filter media slots. With two filter slots you can change out one side of the filter and then a few weeks later change out the other side. If you change out the entire set of media cartridges at once you run the risk of having to re-cycle or mini-cycle because you've tossed out much of the beneficial bacteria.

    Canister Filter Canister filters are on the higher end of the price scale but they are pricey for a reason. They work very well. Often there are multiple trays for a canister filter with each tray providing a type of filtration. The first tray could be a sponge that filters mechanical and biological the large FishLore. The second tray could be filled with zeolite that removes ammonia from the water chemical.

    The third tray could be activated carbon which would further filter chemical the water. Most canister filters push the water from the bottom of the canister to the top but some work just the opposite. Find out which way yours works to get the most out of the canister filter. This is our personal choice of aquarium filter on most of our freshwater fish tanks.

    Protein Skimmer Protein skimmer models come in a few different styles. There are those made for in tank use Visi Jet PS, Slim Skim Protein Skimmer , protein skimmers that hang on the back of the tank and those designed for use in a sump. Those designed for in tank use are usually less desirable because they don't seem to work as well as the other types. Try to get one that hangs on the back of the tank such as the AquaC Remora Protein Skimmer or one for your sump.

    Also, make sure that you can easily get to and remove the collection cup for daily or weekly cleaning. This piece of equipment is usually very pricey but it is a critical piece of equipment for saltwater aquarium beginners nonetheless. They are virtually useless in freshwater tanks. In saltwater tanks, the skimmer will remove dissolved organic material from the water and anyone who has used one can tell you about the smelly brown gunk that gets pulled from the water. In the past, saltwater aquarium keepers would sometimes experience a complete die off of the fish in their tanks.

    Many believe that it was due to the amount of dissolved organics in the water and by using a protein skimmer they have drastically reduced the chances of this happening.

    Skimmers completely remove proteins into a collection cup that can be emptied on a regular basis before they break down in the aquarium leading to algae blooms and DOC buildup.

    Protein skimmers also help increase the dissolved oxygen levels in your saltwater aquarium. Since this is an expensive piece of equipment you will want to shop around and research the various models out there. It's been our experience that you usually get what you pay for when it comes to skimmers. Get the biggest and best rated skimmer that you can afford. A powerhead is considered part of the filtration system?

    Yes, indeed. In freshwater aquariums, powerheads are used for water movement as well as in conjunction with an undergravel filter system.

    If you're running a system where air stones drive the water flow in your undergravel filter, consider using a powerhead in one of the uplift tubes. Many come with a tube that is connected to the powerhead that hangs on the outside of the tank with an air flow valve. This allows you to mix air with the water being pushed out of the powerhead. That can help increase surface agitation and aeration in your tank. Saltwater hobbyists frequently use multiple powerheads situated in a way that allows them to control the flow of the water in the tank or even better, to create turbulent water flows.

    Saltwater tanks usually require more water movement than freshwater tanks. It can be connected to the main tank and is sometimes apart of or separate from the sump. You can even get a hang on the back of the tank type refugiums or DIY a power filter to use as a refugium. See the DIY refugium setup for more information. A refugium provides isolation for those more delicate specimens that can easily and quickly become food for the larger fish in the display tank.

    Aquarium Sump A sump is also an external tank but one that has water lines connected to the display tank. They can be any size but are often smaller and placed hidden below the main tank in the cabinetry. Sumps can provide many benefits for you.

    They can help with nutrient export by allowing certain macro algae types chaetomorpha, for example to grow uninterrupted from grazing by your herbivores in the display tank. Sumps also increase the total amount of water in the system. For instance, if your aquarium is 55 gallons and your sump is 20 gallons, you essentially have a 75 gallon tank. This extra tank also gives you the ability to hide ugly equipment like filters and protein skimmers that could diminish the look of the display tank.

    Many saltwater hobbyists add any saltwater supplements to the sump instead of the main tank. Supplements such as Iodine, strontium, kalkwasser lime water dosing systems and others are often placed into or connected to the sump.

    Is a sump absolutely necessary for a saltwater aquarium? No, they are not mandatory but they can definitely help in keeping your system water parameters stable and they can help hide equipment under the display in the cabinet.

    We'll start with a short list of the equipment you'll need and then give you a step by step guide on setting up or starting your first freshwater fish tank.

    Equipment you will need: Aquarium Aquarium gravel Aquarium filter Replacement filter media Heater Other decorations such as fake or real plants Aquarium test kits to test water parameters and monitor the infamous aquarium nitrogen cycle Fish food Aquarium vacuum Fish net Aquarium Glass Scrubber 5-gallon bucket Pasta strainer.

    STEP 1: Realize the responsibility involved. Learning how to set up a fish tank is not all that difficult, but there are some steps you should follow for a freshwater aquarium setup. First, you must realize a few things about an aquarium setup. A tropical fish tank is just like having a dog or a cat when it comes to the amount of effort on your part. In order to have a successful freshwater tropical fish tank you will have to work at it.

    Once a week, or at most once every two weeks, you will need to perform some kind of maintenance on the tank. Most of the time you will be performing water changes.

    You will also have to feed your fish at least once a day. Setting up and running a fish tank does cost money. There are recurring expenses such as replacing filter media, downloading food, etc. Check out FishLore. Saltwater Aquarium page to get an idea of the setup costs involved. If you are up to the challenge, please proceed! STEP 2: Decide on aquarium size. It's a good idea to have in mind what kind of fish you want to keep in your freshwater aquarium setup before you download an aquarium.

    Some fish only grow to be an inch or two, whereas other types of tropical fish can grow 12 or 13 inches or more in length! Knowing what kind of fish you want will help you decide the size of the tank they will need.

    If this is your first time with an aquarium, it may be a good idea to start with a 10 or 20 gallon aquarium setup for now and stock it with some smaller and hardier species.

    STEP 3: Decide on the aquarium's location. Place your freshwater aquarium setup in an area where the light and temperature of the tank won't be affected by external sources such as windows and heater vents. Sunlight that enters the room through an unshaded window could affect the temperature of your tank.

    This could also lead to green algae problems for your tank down the road. You will want to place your aquarium on a stand that will be able to hold its total weight. You also want to be sure that the floor is able to support the total weight of the aquarium and stand.

    A good rule of thumb for determining the total weight of a full aquarium is 10 pounds per gallon of water. For example, a gallon tank will weigh approximately pounds when filled with water! STEP 4: download your aquarium and equipment. Now is a good time to decide on the type of aquarium filter you will want to use. You will also need to download a heater capable of heating the freshwater aquarium setup size you have. download the gravel, plants, a power strip and other decorations.

    A good rule of thumb for the amount of gravel that you will need is 1 to 1.

    (ebook) Freshwater Aquarium Models

    STEP 5: Set up your aquarium and stand. Wash out your tank with water only! Do not use soap or detergents. Soap residue left behind will be harmful for your tropical fish.

    If you are going to use an under gravel filter not recommended now would be the time to set it up as well. STEP 6: Wash Gravel, plants and decorations. Be sure to wash the gravel thoroughly before adding it to your tank. An easy way to do this is to put some of the rocks in a pasta strainer and wash them out in your bath tub. Then place the clean gravel in a clean 5-gallon bucket for transport to the aquarium. After adding the gravel you can place your plants and decorations.

    STEP 7: Add water to the aquarium. To avoid messing up your gravel and plants, you can place a plate or saucer in the middle of FishLore. Use room temperature water when filling. To remove the chlorine and chloramine, use something like Tetra AquaSafe for Aquariums.

    Don't completely fill up the aquarium until you are sure of the layout of your decorations. Otherwise, when you place your arm in to move stuff around water is going to spill over. STEP 8: Set up equipment. Install your heater but don't plug it in until the thermostat in the heater has adjusted to the water temperature.

    This usually takes about 15 minutes or so. Hook up your filter and any other equipment you have, then top off the aquarium water in your freshwater aquarium setup to just under the hood lip. Place your hood and tank light on the aquarium and then check your power cords to be sure that they are free of water. I would also recommend using a drip loop on all of the power cords to be extra cautious. For more information on safety, read this great article on aquarium electrical safety.

    Plug all of the equipment into a power strip and then "turn on" the aquarium. STEP 9. Wait, wait, wait and then wait some more.

    I know, you want to add some fish. But, in order to do this right you must wait until your aquarium has cycled before adding any fish. There are ways of speeding up this process. Check out the nitrogen cycle page to learn more about starting the nitrogen cycle and how to speed it up. If you must use fish to cycle, try to get a hardier species like the zebra danio or cherry barb. You may notice your fish tank cycle kicking in gear if you start to get some white cloudy aquarium water after a few days.

    STEP Add tropical fish. Only add one or two fish at a time. Adding a couple fish at a time gives your filtration system the time needed to take on the increased biological load that the new fish introduce. When you bring the fish home let the bag float in the tank for about 15 minutes so that the fish can become acclimated to the temperature and pH of the aquarium water.

    After 5 minutes of floating the bag you should add some of the aquarium water to the bag so that the fish can become acclimated to the pH level in the aquarium. This will help reduce the amount of stress imposed on the fish. Stressed fish often leads to dead or diseased fish! Don't feed your fish on the first day. They probably wouldn't eat any food on the first day anyway. Let them get acquainted with their new home.

    If you're interested in some good and hardy first fish, please read the Good First Tropical Fish article. Get ready for regular maintenance. Be prepared to spend some time once every week or two to clean your tank. Performing regular water changes will reduce the nitrate levels and keep your tropical fish happy and healthy. As you can see, the steps for how to set up a fish tank are not that complex and hopefully you now have your aquarium setup and running!

    Have fun, take care of and enjoy your fish! Aquarticles I was surprised at the number of people that approached me last meeting about plants. I have always enjoyed keeping them as have several of my hobbyist friends but there never seemed to be much passion with the exception of a couple of people. In this article I will tell you a little about keeping and growing plants successfully, or at least what makes it successful for me.

    First of all, let's discuss the need for plants in the aquarium. An aquarium without plants is like a home without furniture. It is livable - but ugly, uncomfortable and inefficient. Live plants aid in displaying fish giving them shelter and security.

    They provide shelter for baby fish, shy fish, weak fish and females giving birth. They serve as food for vegetarian fish. They help prevent green water by competing with the algae for nutrients in the water. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and wastes and add oxygen to the water. They increase the surface area for algae, tiny worms, rotifers and protozoa to grow and in turn provide live food for the fish in the tank.

    And you thought that they just looked nice. I prefer to pot most of my plants. The method is very simple and does not take a lot of time or effort. First you need some sort of pot. This could be the plastic pots that your garden plants come in, yoghurt containers, the bottom cut off a plastic pop bottle or small clay pots that you can download at most nurseries. If it is a plastic container, make sure that it is not toxic to your plants or fish.

    Next get a bucket and add some water to it.

    Into the bucket add some potting soil. I prefer to use Hillview Potting Soil as I have found that it is pure soil with nothing added. The reason for mixing the soil and water together first is that if you do not saturate the soil and drop the pot into the aquarium, you take the chance of the air in the soil exploding to the surface and making a real mess of the aquarium.

    Believe me when I say that it can be very frustrating if you rush the job and end up with a big mess. It has happened to me too many time to count. Take your finger and push it into the soil to create a small planting hole. Take your plant and carefully insert the root system into the hole.

    Carefully fill the hole from the sides, then add aquarium gravel to top up the container. Gently pull the plant upward until the crown of the root is just visible at the gravel surface. I usually have a bucket of aquarium water close by so that I can now submerse the potted plant for a few minutes prior to adding it to the aquarium. This will allow any trapped air to escape and possibly prevent the grief that I was talking about earlier.

    Now you can place the FishLore. The potting soil will give the plant that extra goodness and it shouldn't be too long before the plant begins to thrive and propagate. What do I like about potting my plants? I guess the biggest thing is that like most plants, they do better if you leave them alone. Potted plants can be moved around easily without disturbing the root system.

    I have a Cryptocoryne wendtii that has been potted for almost four years now. It goes through stages of fullness and dying back but always seems to do well. There will come a time very shortly that I will remove the plant, separate the runners and replant it in many other containers. Once the pot becomes root bound you will see the roots growing upwards out of the pot , the plant needs to be repotted.

    Lighting is the most important prerequisite for successful plant growth. I have heard many different opinions on how much light is needed but my rule of thumb is one and a half watts per gallon. Most of my tanks are on homemade stands that have the double four-foot fluorescent strip over them. I have two aquariums that are on their own stands, My gallon aquarium has two, double four foot fluorescent strips watts and my 50 gallon has one, double four foot fluorescent strip 80 watts.

    Most store bought canopies are not capable of providing enough light to keep most aquarium plants healthy so be sure to ask your store dealer for suggestions if keeping plants is your focus.

    I have also experimented with different types of lighting. I have had good success with both compact fluorescent bulbs and par 20, watt halogen bulbs. Don't be afraid to try different light sources. Plants will recover very nicely even if they look rough. Pruning your plants will also help them to grow healthy and strong. Carefully remove dead or dying leaves and any leaves that are damaged or have holes in them.

    The plant uses a lot of energy to try and repair these leaves, energy that could be used to produce new, lush growth. If your goal is to keep a natural aquarium, live plants are a must. If you just want to have a nicely decorated aquarium, live plants can be used with plastic plants and rocks to beautifully aquascape your aquarium. Remember that the key is to be patient and to provide the right conditions for the plants that you are keeping.

    Ahhh, yes, the often dismissed but very necessary part of the tropical fish hobby, the infamous quarantine tank. Do you really need one to be successful in this hobby? For freshwater fish you may be able to get by without having a quarantine tank. Freshwater fish are generally more suited to captivity because they are usually tank raised and don't seem to break out in disease as readily as their saltwater counterparts. However, if newly acquired fish do come down with something such as ich ick or velvet, you will surely wish that you had one ready to go.

    One newly bought fish that is introduced to your main tank can easily wipe out the entire tank population. Better safe than sorry, right? For saltwater aquarium keepers, I would say that you definitely need a quarantine tank sometimes called a hospital tank. Marine specimens are mostly wild caught and not used to being kept in captivity.

    Their journey to a dealers tank is usually much longer and much more stressful for them. Stressed out fish will usually come down with some kind of disease if they don't simply die from the whole ordeal. Saltwater fish keepers will usually have other things in the main display tank such as invertebrates and live rock that they don't want to expose to the harsh medicines necessary to treat one or two fish.

    Some medicines can wipe out all of the invertebrates in a tank, so be sure to research any medicine before using it in your tank. Quarantine Tank Setup You don't need to go all out here. A simple tank size of 10 - 20 gallons will suffice for most people. If you have larger fish, then obviously you want to get a bigger quarantine tank.

    All you really need is a bare bones setup with the following equipment: Fill the quarantine tank with water from the main tank and then turn everything on in the quarantine tank. Freshwater Fish Quarantine Tank For newly acquired freshwater fish you will want to acclimate the fish to the water in the quarantine tank and monitor them very closely for a period of two to three weeks.

    Monitor the water parameters with your test kits and check for signs of parasites or bacterial infections. If the newly acquired fish does come down with something you will need to use the appropriate medication and you will need to keep them in quarantine for a further two weeks to make sure that you have indeed treated them effectively.

    If after a few weeks no problems develop, you can then acclimate them to the main tank water and then introduce them. If a fish comes down with something while in your main tank, just net them and put them into the quarantine tank. There should be no need to acclimate them because you used water from your main tank.

    If you didn't use water from the main tank you will need to acclimate them to the quarantine tank water. After the disease clears up you will still want to keep the fish in quarantine for a week or so monitoring the water parameters with your test kits the whole time. Conclusion Freshwater hobbyists may get away with not using a quarantine tank, but saltwater hobbyists would be crazy not using one.

    Save yourself some money, headaches and especially the fish by having a quarantine tank. Our ebook called All about aquariums has been made available free of charge on July 6 th after a generous donation from anonymous donor. Feel free to go through this page where you can find the download link - at the bottom of the article. The book "All About Aquariums" consists of over pages! It's a step-by-step guide perfectly suitable for beginners!

    Your questions will carry the highest importance! Instead of waiting for your questions to be reviewed, eventually without approving and answering them, your questions will be answered by our staff usually in 24 hours!

    I have been fish keeping for 30 years and seen a few changes in the hobby, for the better I may add. I used to run two fish houses where I bred several species of fish including 8 breeding pairs of discus.

    I have also kept a reef tank for over a year and my new venture is to try to get a breeding pair of Oscars so I have bought a group of juveniles to see what happens.

    I am an active member on several forums and started my own forum in February as I find some of them seem to distract away from their purpose which is to provide help and information when required.

    All comments must be submitted by registered members. Some of the FishLore forum members have tried it and it sounds like it is legitimate. It is kind of expensive, but if you already have fish in your tank and they are suffering through the cycle, you may want to check this stuff out. There are both FishLore. Please let us know if you use this and if it works for you by submitting comments below. Once the cycle has started only add one or two fish at a time.

    Wait a couple of weeks before adding more fish. This will give your tank the time it needs to catch up with the increased bioload. Speeding Up the Cycling Process There are things you can do to speed along the process of cycling your aquarium. Increase the temperature of your aquarium water to 80FF 27CC Get some beneficial bacteria colonies. Borrow some gravel from an established and cycled aquarium. If you have another tank with an extra filter you can use it. If you have a really nice friend with an established and cycled aquarium, ask if you can have one of their used filter media.

    It will be loaded with the good bacteria that we are looking for. There are products on the market that claim to introduce the beneficial bacteria. For more information, check out products like Bio-spira and Tetra SafeStart in option 6 above.

    There are many more products entering the market that contain the beneficial bacteria necessary to seed your tank. Between live rock for saltwater aquariums and the bottled bacteria being readily available, there really is no excuse to make fish suffer through a cycle.

    Most think of mechanical filtration when it comes to aquarium filters but as you will soon see, there are some other filter types that you need to know about. The siphoning action of a power filter that hangs on the back of an aquarium does a decent job of this type of filtration. Biological Aquarium Filtration Biological filtration is the most important aquarium filtration type because it deals with the growing of the good bacteria in your aquarium filter. The good bacteria is the bacteria that converts ammonia to nitrite and then converts nitrite into nitrate.

    This establishment of bacteria is essential to your success with keeping tropical fish. For more information please read about the Nitrogen Cycle. Often times this is accomplished through the use of activated carbon in the aquarium filter.

    Activated carbon can also help to reduce odors. Many people dislike using carbon in their tanks due to the fact that the carbon is useful for only a short period and then must be replaced. If it doesn't FishLore. Zeolites can also be used in chemical filtration.

    Zeolite removes ammonia from your aquarium water and can be a fish life saver if you have high ammonia levels. Many first time fish keepers mistakenly add too many fish to a new aquarium before it has cycled and experience the disappointing loss of their fish.

    Using zeolite during the cycling process in your aquarium filter can help prevent this from happening but it has the side effect of lengthening the time it takes to complete the aquarium nitrogen cycle. Types of Aquarium Filters Corner Filter The corner filter sits inside the aquarium in one of the corners or even sticks on to the glass.

    It is very low-tech but a corner aquarium filter can be used successfully for mechanical, chemical and biological filtration. The key is not to change out the entire filter material when performing maintenance.

    Only change out the carbon and part of the filter material. Corner filters require frequent maintenance and are only used in very small tanks these days if at all. Undergravel Filter UGF Undergravel filters are commonly found with beginner's aquarium kits and the undergravel filter has been around for a long time.

    Undergravel aquarium filters can provide good mechanical filtration because it forces the water down through the aquarium gravel where particles are trapped. You can then use an aquarium vacuum to clean the detritus.

    Biological filtration occurs in the gravel because of the slow flow of water through it. The water is then pushed up through the uplift tubes in the back of the tank where chemical filtration takes place with the activated carbon in the top of the tubes.

    The problem with this type of aquarium filter stems from the fact that it can be difficult to thoroughly vacuum the gravel and harmful gas pockets can form under the gravel plates thereby harming your tropical fish. I personally don't use undergravel filters because of this reason. There's a lot of controversy surrounding the use of undergravel filtration. Check out The Undergravel Filter Controversy for more on this subject.

    Many long time fishkeepers still use FishLore. If you do use an undergravel filter try to regularly vacuum your gravel to prevent the harmful gasses from forming. Sponge Filter Sponge filters can provide a cheap and effective form of biological filtration. Water flows through the airlift tube allowing a colony of beneficial bacteria to grow in the sponge. There is no chemical filtration with this method and the mechanical filtration is very weak.

    You must do frequent water changes if this is your only form of filtration.

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    Many breeders use the sponge filter in conjunction with a bare bottom tank. After feeding their young fish they will siphon any remaining food to prevent the water quality from deteriorating. Frequent water changes are performed because it aids in the rapid growth of the young fish.

    Fish breeders don't have to worry about mechanical or chemical filtration as much because they are performing frequent water changes. Power Filter The power filter is probably the most popular filter type for a variety of reasons. They are easy to use and clean and they can be an effective means of mechanical, chemical and biological filtration! The drawback to using power filters is that it is very inefficient because of its design.

    Ebook on aquarium keeping

    The intake tube for the dirty aquarium water is directly below the lip of the outflowing filtered water. Does this make any sense? Not to me either. More aquarium kits come with a power filter than any other type of aquarium filter. Try to get a power filter that contains two filter media slots. With two filter slots you can change out one side of the filter and then a few weeks later change out the other side. If you change out the entire set of media cartridges at once you run the risk of having to re-cycle or mini-cycle because you've tossed out much of the beneficial bacteria.

    Canister Filter Canister filters are on the higher end of the price scale but they are pricey for a reason. They work very well. Often there are multiple trays for a canister filter with each tray providing a type of filtration.

    The first tray could be a sponge that filters mechanical and biological the large FishLore. The second tray could be filled with zeolite that removes ammonia from the water chemical. The third tray could be activated carbon which would further filter chemical the water. Most canister filters push the water from the bottom of the canister to the top but some work just the opposite. Find out which way yours works to get the most out of the canister filter.

    This is our personal choice of aquarium filter on most of our freshwater fish tanks. Protein Skimmer Protein skimmer models come in a few different styles. There are those made for in tank use Visi Jet PS, Slim Skim Protein Skimmer , protein skimmers that hang on the back of the tank and those designed for use in a sump.

    Those designed for in tank use are usually less desirable because they don't seem to work as well as the other types. Try to get one that hangs on the back of the tank such as the AquaC Remora Protein Skimmer or one for your sump. Also, make sure that you can easily get to and remove the collection cup for daily or weekly cleaning.

    This piece of equipment is usually very pricey but it is a critical piece of equipment for saltwater aquarium beginners nonetheless.

    They are virtually useless in freshwater tanks. In saltwater tanks, the skimmer will remove dissolved organic material from the water and anyone who has used one can tell you about the smelly brown gunk that gets pulled from the water. In the past, saltwater aquarium keepers would sometimes experience a complete die off of the fish in their tanks.

    Many believe that it was due to the amount of dissolved organics in the water and by using a protein skimmer they have drastically reduced the chances of this happening. Skimmers completely remove proteins into a collection cup that can be emptied on a regular basis before they break down in the aquarium leading to algae blooms and DOC buildup. Protein skimmers also help increase the dissolved oxygen levels in your saltwater aquarium. Since this is an expensive piece of equipment you will want to shop around and research the various models out there.

    It's been our experience that you usually get what you pay for when it comes to skimmers. Get the biggest and best rated skimmer that you can afford. Powerhead FishLore. Yes, indeed. In freshwater aquariums, powerheads are used for water movement as well as in conjunction with an undergravel filter system.

    If you're running a system where air stones drive the water flow in your undergravel filter, consider using a powerhead in one of the uplift tubes. Many come with a tube that is connected to the powerhead that hangs on the outside of the tank with an air flow valve. This allows you to mix air with the water being pushed out of the powerhead.

    That can help increase surface agitation and aeration in your tank. Saltwater hobbyists frequently use multiple powerheads situated in a way that allows them to control the flow of the water in the tank or even better, to create turbulent water flows.

    Saltwater tanks usually require more water movement than freshwater tanks. It can be connected to the main tank and is sometimes apart of or separate from the sump. You can even get a hang on the back of the tank type refugiums or DIY a power filter to use as a refugium. See the DIY refugium setup for more information.

    A refugium provides isolation for those more delicate specimens that can easily and quickly become food for the larger fish in the display tank. Aquarium Sump A sump is also an external tank but one that has water lines connected to the display tank.

    They can be any size but are often smaller and placed hidden below the main tank in the cabinetry. Sumps can provide many benefits for you. They can help with nutrient export by allowing certain macro algae types chaetomorpha, for example to grow uninterrupted from grazing by your herbivores in the display tank. Sumps also increase the total amount of water in the system. For instance, if your aquarium is 55 gallons and your sump is 20 gallons, you essentially have a 75 gallon tank.

    Many saltwater hobbyists add any saltwater supplements to the sump instead of the main tank. Supplements such as Iodine, strontium, kalkwasser lime water dosing systems and others are often placed into or connected to the sump. Is a sump absolutely necessary for a saltwater aquarium?

    No, they are not mandatory but they can definitely help in keeping your system water parameters stable and they can help hide equipment under the display in the cabinet. We'll start with a short list of the equipment you'll need and then give you a step by step guide on setting up or starting your first freshwater fish tank. Equipment you will need: Aquarium Aquarium gravel Aquarium filter Replacement filter media Heater Other decorations such as fake or real plants Aquarium test kits to test water parameters and monitor the infamous aquarium nitrogen cycle Fish food Aquarium vacuum Fish net Aquarium Glass Scrubber 5-gallon bucket Pasta strainer STEP 1: Realize the responsibility involved.